Spacewalk (2.8)

ABBREVIATIONS

1. SLES : SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
2. RBAC : Role Based Access Control.
3. PXE : Pre-boot Execution Environment.
4. DHCP : Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
5. RDP: Remote Desktop Protocol.
6. HTTP : Hypertext Transfer Protocol
7. HTTPS : Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure.
8. TCP : Transmission Control Protocol.
9. FQDN : Fully Qualified Domain Name.
10. HDD : Hard Disk Drive.
11. NIC : Network Interface Controller.
12. SCSI : Small Computer System Interface.
13. ESX : VMware product, bare metal embedded hypervisor used as a virtualization platform.
14. VMXNET : Network interface adapter from VMware team. It is used in virtual machines running on ESX hosts.
15. SSL : Secure Sockets Layer.
16. RHEL : Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
17. URL : Uniform Resource Locator.
18. osad – Open Source Architecture Daemon.
19. Rhn- red hat network.
20. YUM – yellowdog updater modified.

Definations:

Channels:
It is nothing but a list of software packages. These are of two types
1. Base channel: it is a list of software packages which is based on a specific architecture or red hat release.
2. Child channel: it is a list of channel which is associated with base channel which may contain extra packages.

Organization Administrator:
Is the one who has the highest level of control over the organisation’s account. These members only has the power to add or remove the other users, system and system groups to the organization. The red hat network organization must have atleast 1 organization administrator.

 Channel Administrator:
Is the one who has the full access to the channel management capabilities . thay are capable of creating cloning and deleting channels. It is the role assigned by the organization administrator .

 Certificate Authority:
it distributes digital signature to the users for encrypted authentication and communication which is a part of public key infrastructure.

 Red Hat Update Agent:
It is client application which allows users to retrieve and install new and updated packages for the host.

 Traceback:
It is a detailed error message used for troubleshooting the red hat satellite. The main function of traceback is that when a critical error occurs it mails the users or individuals in the Red Hat Satellite configuration file.

 Software channel:
Software channels are the channels which are subscribed by to Spacewalk to obtain software packages and errata. It may have number of child channels which provide additional packages.

 Entitlement:
it is being enabled so as to provide additional functionality which is being supported by the Spacewalk. With Spacewalk 2.6 many entitlements were removed the only which was supported was virtualization entitlement, which can install the additional packages on the target host so as to manage virtual guests on the host.

 System group:
On the multiple client system it enables to perform system management operations which are oragnised into groups. However , client system can be a member of more than 1 group. But the members of the groups must be from the same Oracle Linux release, system architecture and a kickstart profile.

 Organization:
The main function is to provide the way to logically delegate system management responsibilities and allocate the entitlements. It provide a way to segment the Spacewalk implementation. We can establish management entities which corresponds to the different administrative groups by creating or defining multiple organization.

 YUM:
YUM stands for Yellowdog Updater modified.YUM is a default package management in RHEL/CentOS linux. It is used to search install, update and remove necessary rpm files from system. It uses the repository to manage rpm files, where repository is collection of rpm files. As YUM depends on repository, there must be atleast one working repository before it can be used.YUM can automatically resolve software dependencies and based on system hardware it can automatically select appropriate versions of RPM packages from repository.

 Rhn-client-tools:
It is package with collection of tools and libraries for managing the client system.
Such as:
rhn check: it polls the spacewalk server and receives queued actions of the system and process them and return the results to the spacewalk .
rhn-pro_le-sync: it refreshes the data stored fornthe system.
rhn register: it is a client program which registers system to the spacewalk.

 Rhnlib:
It is a collection of python modules which are used by the Spacewalk. It is nothing but the base package for all client packages used to provide a secured communication between server and client.

 System _listerrata: it lists the errata that are available for specified system.

 Erratadetails: it displays additional information about a given erratum.

 System_applyerrata: it applies errata multiple systems within a system group at the same time.

 Taskomatic:
It is a type of deamon which perform long running tasks which are running asynchronously such as sending out email notification or cleaning up the session table for the new errata.

 Rhnsd:
It is nothing but a query daemon which will query the spacewalk server by the rhn check tool where scheduled action takes place. It is written in C language and hence it is not architecture independent like other tools in the client.

 Osad :
It provides OSA daemon agent. Where the commands received by the agent from spacewalk server are instantly executed over jabber protocol.

 Kickstart:
An automatic system installation configuration which uses answer files while installation process is termed as kickstart.

 Errata:
It is nothing but an information about packages having security bug fix or enhancemwnt updates.
It also helps to detect the issues which are not resolved even in the later versions of the packages.

 EPEL:
Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) is a fedora group where high quality set of additional packages are being created, maintained and managed including RHEL, CentOS, Oracle Linux(OL)
Etc. it uses much of the same infrastructure as fedora.

 Cobbler:
It is a linux provisioning server which is used to manage and facilitate the system installation of multiple OS using different services from a central point. It is also able to manage complex networks such as bridging on bonded Ethernet link etc.

 Repository:
It is used in provisioning packages for the software channels. Usually it is being used by the Spacewalk for provisioning packages for the software channel. Atleast one repository must be associated with each channel to obtain the upstream packages else the channel attempts to pull the packages from multiple sources.

 Activation key:
It is one type of tag which is being associated with server configuration. While registering client with the spacewalk server one needs to specify the activation key to select the characteristics which are bound to that key. It can also be used to trigger Spacewalk to install specific packages and deploy the specialized configuration after registration.

Introduction:
Spacewalk is an open source, system management solution which is used by the system for provisioning, patching & configuring the license under GNU general public license v2. It is build from FOSS (Free and Open Source Software). To manage and view the updates for system registered it provides web interface with spacewalk. The following are the main advantages of using spacewalk.
1. It updates and installs software on the systems.
2. Custom software packages are collected and distributed into manageable groups.
3. It kickstarts your system.
4. Configuration files are managed and deployed.
5. Provisions, start, stop and configure virtual guests.

Prerequisites:

In order to install the spacewalk the following requirements are needed:
1. Storage for database
2. Storage for packages
3. Minimum 2GB RAM,(4GB recommended).
4. The underlying OS must be up to date.

Installation of spacewalk on CentOS-6 :

1. Steps for installing Spacewalk server.

 Pre-installation steps :

1. Adding host file :
vi /etc/hosts
192.168.0.22 spacewalk.unixadmin.in spacewalk

2. Adding hostname in network file
vi /etc/sysconfig/network
HOSTNAME=spacewalk.unixadmin.in

3. chkconfig iptables off
4. chkconfig NetworkManager off
5. Disable selinux
vi /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX= disabled

 Installation steps:
Spacewalk server installation and configuration:
After performing the above steps next initiate the spacewalk server Installation as:

1. Setup spacewalk repositories:
In order to install spacewalk on the CentOs 6, first we need to install spacewalk repository package using the following command.

#rpm -Uvh https://copr-be.cloud.fedoraproject.org/results/@spacewalkproject/spacewalk-2.8/epel-6-x86_64/00736372-spacewalk-repo/spacewalk-repo-2.8-11.el6.noarch.rpm

Where, the repository package required for the spacewalk installation are installed from the above link and a file named spacewalk-repo-2.8-11.el6.noarch.rpm is being created.

2. Additional repo and package:
For spacewalk installation java virtual machine with version 1.6.0 or greater is required. EPEL(extra packages for enterprise linux) contains openjdk version which works with spacewalk. Hence, other dependencies also get installed with it. To get the packages from the EPEL install it using the rpm command as

# rpm -Uvh https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm

The other dependencies which are required for the spacewalk installation are installed from above rpm so as to get the packages from EPEL.

3. Java packages:
In order to install the spacewalk we need additional java packages hence, before beginning the spacewalk installation process, we need to first configure java packages
Here, we need to setup both the repositories.
#cd /etc/yum.repos.d && curl –O https://copr.fedorainfracloud.org/coprs/g/spacewalkproject/java-packages/repo/epel-7/group_spacewalkproject-java-packages-epel-7.repo

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d && curl -O https://copr.fedorainfracloud.org/coprs/g/spacewalkproject/epel6-addons/repo/epel-6/group_spacewalkproject-epel6-addons-epel-6.repo

Here, the java package repository required after installing extra packages is installed and a file under /etc/yum.repos.d is created as (group_spacewalkproject-java-packages-epel-7.repo) and (group_spacewalkproject-epel6-addons-epel-6.repo).

4. Database server:
The primary data on the spacewalk is stored by the database server it can be either by PostgreSQL or oracle RDBMS.
Here, we use PostgreSQL server for the spacewalk setup. To do so run the following command
# yum -y install spacewalk-setup-postgresql

5. Installing spacewalk:
If we use PostgreSQL as backend, just install the spacewalk using the following command.
# yum -y install spacewalk-postgresql

6. Configuring spacewalk sever:
After installing the spacewalk repository we need to configure the application, to do so run the following command

# spacewalk-setup

i.e,

root@localhost ~]# spacewalk-setup
** Database: Setting up database connection for PostgreSQL backend.
** Database: Installing the database:
** Database: This is a long process that is logged in:
** Database: /var/log/rhn/install_db.log
*** Progress: ####
** Database: Installation complete.
** Database: Populating database.
*** Progress: ##########################
* Configuring tomcat.
* Setting up users and groups.
** GPG: Initializing GPG and importing key.
You must enter an email address.
Admin Email Address? aloft.tech@yahoo.co.in
* Performing initial configuration.
* Configuring apache SSL virtual host.
Should setup configure apache's default ssl server for you (saves original ssl.conf) [Y]?
** /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf has been backed up to ssl.conf-swsave
* Configuring jabberd.
* Creating SSL certificates.
CA certificate password?
Re-enter CA certificate password?
Passwords did not match, please try again.
CA certificate password?
Re-enter CA certificate password?
Cname alias of the machine (comma seperated)? spacewalk
Organization? aloft
Organization Unit [spacewalk.unixadmin.in]?
Email Address [aloft.tech@yahoo.co.in]?
City? gulbarga
State? karnataka
Country code (Examples: "US", "JP", "IN", or type "?" to see a list)? IN
** SSL: Generating CA certificate.
** SSL: Deploying CA certificate.
** SSL: Generating server certificate.
** SSL: Storing SSL certificates.
* Deploying configuration files.
* Update configuration in database.
* Setting up Cobbler..
Cobbler requires tftp and xinetd services be turned on for PXE provisioning functionality. Enable these services [Y]?
* Restarting services.
Installation complete.
Visit https://spacewalk.unixadmin.in to create the Spacewalk administrator account.
Once the spacewalk is installed go to the
https://spacewalk.unixadmin.in created after installation in the web server
for the further configuration.

 Configuration of spacewalk server:

After the installation of spacewalk we need to configure it. The spacewalk is being configured from the web server. After login into the spacewalk server from the web browser the first step is to create a organization by providing the details such as
Organization name: aloft technology
Then create spacewalk administrator account with
Desired login:spacewalkadmin
Desired password: *********
Email:aloft.tech@yahoo.co.in
First and last name : miss sana anjum

Then click on create organization, hence by providing the above details the organization will be created.

2. Steps for registering client to spacewalk server :

1. On Centos-6 :

 Pre-installation steps for client :
The pre installation steps for client are same as that of server.
1. Adding host file:
vi /etc/hosts
192.168.0.31 cnode01.unixadmin.in cnode

2. Adding hostname in network file
vi /etc/sysconfig/network
HOSTNAME=cnode01.unixadmin.in
3. chkconfig iptables off
4. chkconfig NetworkManager off

5. Disable selinux
vi /etc/selinux/config
here, change selinux to disabled.
SELINUX= disabled

 Installation steps:

1. Installing spacewalk and EPEL repo:
In order to start client registration we need to first install the dependencies required for the client. i.e. first we need to first install the spacewalk repository and the epel repository
# rpm -Uvh https://copr-be.cloud.fedoraproject.org/results/@spacewalkproject/spacewalk-2.8-client/epel-6-x86_64/00742644-spacewalk-repo/spacewalk-client-repo-2.8-11.el6.noarch.rpm

# rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm

2. Install the client packages:

# yum -y install rhn-client-tools rhn-check rhn-setup rhnsd m2crypto yum-rhn-plugin

# yum install osad
Where different rhn client packages and osad is being installed using the above command.

3. Enable CA certificate of the server to enable SSL communication.

# rpm -Uvh http://192.168.0.22/pub/rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert-1.0-1.noarch.rpm

Where , in the above command we are installing the CA certificate from the server created spacewalk.unixadmin.in(192.168.0.22).

4.Then register the client to the server using the activation key created .
# rhnreg_ks --serverUrl=https://192.168.0.22/XMLRPC --sslCACert=/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT --activationkey=1-Centos6.8base-key

Here , in the above command client registration to the server (192.168.0.22) with the activation key created on the server(1-Centos6.8base-key).

2. On Centos-7 :

 Pre-installation steps for client :
The pre installation steps for client are same as that of server.
1. Adding host file:
vi /etc/hosts
192.168.0.32 cnode02.unixadmin.in cnode

2. Adding hostname in network file
vi /etc/sysconfig/network
HOSTNAME=cnode02.unixadmin.in

3.systemctl stop firewalld
4. systemctl stop NetworkManager

5. Disable selinux
vi /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX= disabled

 Installation steps:

1. Installing spacewalk and EPEL repo:
In order to start client registration we need to first install the dependencies required for the client. i.e. first we need to first install the spacewalk repository and the epel repository
# rpm -Uvh https://copr-be.cloud.fedoraproject.org/results/@spacewalkproject/spacewalk-2.8-client/epel-7-x86_64/00742644-spacewalk-repo/spacewalk-client-repo-2.8-11.el7.centos.noarch.rpm

# rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm

2. Install the client packages:

# yum -y install rhn-client-tools rhn-check rhn-setup rhnsd m2crypto yum-rhn-plugin

# yum install osad
Where different rhn client packages and osad is being installed using the above command.

3. Enable CA certificate of the server to enable SSL communication.

# rpm -Uvh http://192.168.0.22/pub/rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert-1.0-1.noarch.rpm
Where , in the above command we are installing the CA certificate from the server created spacewalk.unixadmin.in(192.168.0.22).

4. Then register the client to the server using the activation key created .

# rhnreg_ks --serverUrl=https://192.168.0.22/XMLRPC --sslCACert=/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT --activationkey=1-Centos7base-key

Here , in the above command client registration to the server (192.168.0.22) with the activation key created on the server(1-Centos7base-key).

CHANNEL CONFIGURATION:

 For the channel configuration in spacewalk server select channels manage software channels as shown below:

 Next , go to create channel where we need to provide the following details,

Then click on create channel at the bottom to create a new channel.

 Next, we need to manage repositories go to  manage software channels manage repositories.

 Then, create a new repository by clicking on the create repository.

After providing the above details click on create repository.
A message at the top will be displayed as repository created.
Then connect the repository to the created channel update the repositories and synchronize it as shown below,

At the bottom click on update repositories so as to update the repositories. After getting updated sync the repository so as to download the updated repository packages.

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